Chironji Tree
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Chironji Tree
ative Photo: Dinesh Valke
Common name: Chironji Tree, almondette, calumpong nut, Cheronjee, Cuddapah almond, Hamilton mombin • Hindi: चार char, चिरोंजी chironji, चिरौंजी chiraunji, पियाल piyal, प्रसवक pra-savak, प्रियाल priyal • Marathi: चार char, चारोळी charoli, पियाल piyal • Tamil: சாரம் charam • Malayalam: മൂങ്ങാപ്പേഴ് muungaappeezh, നുറമരം nuramaram • Telugu: చార char, చారుమామిడి charumamidi, ప్రియాళువు priyaluvu, రాజాదనము raj-adanamu • Kannada: ಚಾರೊಳೆ Charole ಚಾರೊಳಿ Charoli, ಕೊಲೆ ಮಾವು Kole maavu ಮೊಱಟೆ, ಮೊರಟೆ Morate ಮೊಱಟಿ, ಮೊರಟಿ Morati, ಮೊಱಪ್ಪಿ Morappi, ಮೊಱಲೆ Morale, ಮರ್ಕಲಿ Markali • Bengali: chironji, piyal, sarop • Oriya: charu, chanhra • Konkani: चार char • Urdu: چرونجي chironji • Assamese: পিয়াল piyal • Gujarati: ચારોળી charoli • Sanskrit: अखट्टः Akhatth, मुनि Muni, पियाल Piyala, प्रसवकः Prasavakh, प्रियाल Priyala, राजदनः Rajadanah, उपवटः Upavatah धनुस् (धनुः) Dhanus सन्नकद्रुः Sannakadru • Nepali: चिरोंजि Chiraunjee
Botanical name: Buchanania cochinchinensis    Family: Anacardiaceae (Cashew family)
Synonyms: Buchanania lanzan, Buchanania latifolia, Chironjia sapida

Chironji Tree is a medium-sized deciduous tree, growing to about 50 ft tall. It bears fruits each cotaining a single seed, which is popular as an edible nut, known as chironji. It is common in our forests mostly in eroded ravine lands. It avoids waterlogged areas, but occurs locally in clay soils. It can be identified by the dark grey crocodile bark with red blaze. A good species for afforesting bare hill slopes. It has tickly leathery leaves which are broadly oblong, with blunt tip and rounded base. Leaves have 10-20 pairs of straight, parallel veins. Pyramidal panicles of greenish while flowers appear in early spring. Fruits ripen from April to May and remain on the tree for quite a long time. Flowering: January-March.
Medicinal uses: The roots are acrid, astringent, cooling, depurative and constipating, and are useful in treatment of diarrhoea. Leaves are used in the treatment of skin diseases. Fruits are used in treating cough and asthma.

Identification credit: Hemanth Tripathi, Santosh Yadav Photographed at Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai.

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