Botanical name: Allium sativum Family: Alliaceae (Onion family)
Synonyms: Allium ophioscorodon, Allium pekinense
Garlic is is commonly cultivated herb. Aerial stems are up to 1 m tall, erect, simple, herbaceous, green, hairless, round, mostly hollow. Bulb consists of many bulblets, with a papery coating and fibrous roots. Leaves are present in the lower 1/3 to 1/2 of the plant. Leaves are flat or very slightly folded, up to 30 cm long, 7-10 mm broad, smooth, often glaucous, with a prominent midrib, sheathing. The ligule is rounded ("U"-shaped), the free portion 1-2mm tall (long). Inflorescence is a dense head-like cluster of bubils at the end of the stem. Inflorescence is covered in a papery spathe. Spathe with a long apiculate tip, splitting on one side at maturity. Flowers are mostly or entirely replaced by bubils. Bubils are smooth, whitish or (more commonly) with a reddish tinge. If produced, the small flowers are greenish, whitish, or pinkish and tubular with pointed lobes. While sexual propagation of garlic is indeed possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. This species is native to Central Asia, and spread to the Mediterranean region, China and western hemisphere. It is cultivated throughout India. Flowering: May-July.
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