Common name: Mango • Hindi: Am आम • Manipuri: Heinou • Tamil: மா Ma • Telugu: Mamidi • Malayalam: Mangga • Kannada: Mavina mara • Marathi: Amba अंबा • Konkani: Ambo आंबॉ
Botanical name: Mangifera indica Family: Anacardiaceae (Cashew family)
It is a matter of astonishment to many that the delicious mango,
one of the most celebrated of Indian fruits, is a member of the
family Anacardiaceae–notorious for embracing a number of highly poisonous
plants. The mango tree is erect, 30 to 100 ft high, with a
broad, rounded canopy which may, with age, attain 100 to 125 ft in
width, or a more upright, oval, relatively slender crown. In deep soil, the
taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft, the profuse, wide-spreading,
feeder root system also sends down many anchor roots which penetrate for
several feet. The tree is long-lived, some specimens being known to be 300
years old and still fruiting. Nearly evergreen, alternate leaves are borne
mainly in rosettes at the tips of the branches and numerous twigs from which
they droop like ribbons on slender petioles 1 to 4 in long.
Hundreds and even as many as 3,000 to 4,000 small, yellowish or reddish
flowers, 25% to 98% male, the rest hermaphroditic, are borne in profuse,
showy, erect, pyramidal, branched clusters 2 1/2 to 15 1/2 in high.
There is great variation in the form, size, color and quality of the fruits.
They may be nearly round, oval, ovoid-oblong, or somewhat kidney-shaped, often
with a break at the apex, and are usually more or less lop-sided.