Wrinkled-Leaf Snake Root
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Wrinkled-Leaf Snake Root
P Native Photo: Thingnam Girija
Common name: Wrinkled-Leaf Snake Root, Dwarf Ophiorrhiza • Bengali: জারি ফুল Jari Ful,কালা সোনা Kalashona
Botanical name: Ophiorrhiza rugosa    Family: Rubiaceae (Coffee family)
Synonyms: Ophiorrhiza harrisiana var. rugosa, Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata

Wrinkled-Leaf Snake Root is a perennial herb, sometimes annual, weak to erect, up to 2 ft tall; stems pilosulous to velvety. Leaves are in nearly equal pairs; leaf-stalk 0.5-1.5 cm, finely velvet-hairy to tomentulose; blade drying thinly papery, ovate-lanceshaped, lanceshaped, or elliptic, 2-6 x 1-3 cm, above hairless to sparsely rough or bristly, base wedge-shaped to blunt, tip with a tail-tapering, blunt, pointed, or weakly tapering; secondary veins 5-7 pairs. Snake Root are borne in congested-cymes, several to many flowered, hairy to becoming hairless; flower-cluster-stalks 1.5-3 cm; axes short to developed, becoming helicoid; bracts few, deciduous, linear, 2-3 mm. Flowers are nearly stalkless. Calyx is finely velvet-hairy; hypanthium ellipsoid, about 0.8 mm; lobes 0.2-1.5 mm. Flower are tubular-funnel-shaped, outside finely velvet-hairy to hairless; tube 3-6 mm, inside with velvet-hairy ring near or above middle; lobes triangular, 1-2 mm, dorsally smooth to ridged. Capsules are obconic, 2-2.5 × 4-5 mm, finely velvet-hairy to becoming hairless. Wrinkled-Leaf Snake Root is found in evergreen forest in Eastern Himalayas, in Bhutan, NE India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, at altitudes of 1700-3400 m.

Identification credit: J.M. Garg Photographed in Sikkim.

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